In the name of God
I hereby grant Yasouj University or its agents the right to archive and to make available my thesis in whole or part in the university libraries in all forms of media, now or hereafter known, subject to the provisions of the copyright Acts. I retain all proprietary rights, such as patent rights. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis.
I have either used no substantial portions of copyright material in my thesis or I have obtained permission has not been granted, I have applied for a partial restriction of the digital copy of my thesis.
Signed:
Mansoore Ashrafi
October 2013
University of Yasouj
Faculty of Literature and Humanities
Department of English Language and Literature
MA Thesis in TEFL
A Scrutiny of In-service Training Programs for EFL Teachers and the Development of a Model Based on Language Teachers’ Perceptions
Supervisors:
M. J. Jabbari, PhD
A. Kazemi, PhD
Advisor:
R. Zarei, PhD
By:
Mansoore Ashrafi
October 2013
A Scrutiny of In-service Training Programs for EFL Teachers and the Development of a Model Based on Language Teachers’ Perceptions
By:
Mansoore Ashrafi
A thesis submitted to the office of the Post-Graduate, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Art (MA)
IN
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)
Approved by Full Name Signature
Supervisors: M. J. Jabbar, Ph.D, Associate. Prof. of Linguistics
A. Kazemi, Ph.D, Assist. Prof. of TEFL
Advisor: R. Zarei, Ph.D, Assist. Prof. of English language and Literature
Internal Examiner: R. Rezvani, Ph.D, Assist. Prof. of TEFL
Head of the Department: R. Zarei, Ph.D, Assist. Prof. of English language and Literature
Representative of the Post-Graduate office: A. Taghvaeinia, Ph.D, Assist. Prof. of . of of Psychology
October 2013
DEDICATED TO MY PARENTS
Acknowledgments
I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my supervisors Dr. M. J. Jabbari and Dr. A. Kazemi for their guidance, advice, criticism, encouragement and insight throughout this research.
I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. R. Zarei, the honorable reader, who provided me with helpful comments.
Finally, a heartfelt thank goes to my family for supporting me and encouraging me throughout this study. Without them this thesis would not have been possible.
First Name: Mansoore Last Name: Ashrafi
Degree: M.A. Field of Study: TEFL
Supervisors: Dr. M. J. Jabbari Defense Date: 20/7/1392
Dr. A. Kazemi
A Scrutiny of In-service Training Programs for EFL Teachers and the Development of a
Model Based on Language Teachers’ Perceptions
Abstract
As language teachers play a pivotal role in the betterment of language education, teacher-training programs, pre-service and in-service training programs alike, have been in place to enable teachers to accomplish the important roles expected of them. However, not due attention has been paid to the effectiveness and practicality of these programs. Among those who can pass informed judgments on the effectiveness of such programs are language teachers themselves. However, their perceptions are not consistently taken into account while deciding on these programs. Accordingly, the current study aimed to scrutinize in-service training programs for EFL teachers and to develop a model which is hoped to be practical and effective. To this end, seven English teachers were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were subjected to qualitative content analysis. In addition, based on the results of the semi-structured interview and the related literature, an In-Service Teacher Training Programs Questionnaire (ISTTPQ) was developed by the researcher to evaluate the current in-service teacher training programs. Following the validation of the instrument through a pilot study, the questionnaire was administrated to 290 state high school teachers in Yasouj and Shiraz, who were selected through cluster sampling. The qualitative data analysis revealed that teachers were not satisfied with the current in-service training programs. They stated that these programs could not bring about any real changes in their performance and did not have any effective impact on them. Drawing on the ideas expressed by the interviewees and an extensive review of literature a questionnaire was developed which could serve as a framework for evaluating teacher training programs. In addition, the questionnaire was administered to the teachers to decide to evaluate the programs they had attended and come up with an optimum model of in-service teacher training program.
Keywords: Training, Evaluation, Teachers’ perceptions, In-service teacher training
Table of Contents
ContentsPage
ACKNOWLEGMENTSI
ABSTRACT II
TABLE OF CONTENTSIII
LIST OF TABLESV
LIST OF FIGURESVI
CHAPTER ONE: PRELIMINARIEE
1.1 Introduction1
1.2 Statement of the Problem5
1.3 Significance of the Study6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5. Definition of Key Terms…………………………………………………7
1.6. Organization of the thesis……………………………………………….9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction11
2.2 Teaching and Learning English 11
2.3 The Need for Teacher Training12
2.4. Teacher Training Programs Scrutinized14
2.5. Models of Teacher Training14
2.5.1 Wallace’s Models……………………………………………………….14
2.5.1.1 The craft model15
2.5.1.2 The applied science model15
2.5.1.3. The reflective model………………………………………………16
2.5.2. Day’s Model…………………………………………………………….17
ContentsPage
2.5.2.1. The Apprentice – Expert Model……………………………………17
2.5.2.2. The Rationalist Model………………………………………………17
2.5.2.3. The Case Studies Model……………………………………………17
2.5.2.4. The Integrative Model………………………………………………17
2.5.3. Bramley’s Model………………………………………………………….18
2.6. Evaluating Educational Programs…………………………………………….18
2.6.1. Ornstein and Hunkins’ Model…………………………………………….21
2.6.1.1. Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model…………………………..21
2.6.1.2. Stake’s Congruence – Contingency Model…………………………22
2.6.1.3. Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, Product Model (CIPP)…….23
2.6.1.4. Judicial Approach to Evaluation……………………………………24
2.6.1.5. Eisner’s Connoisseurship Evaluation Model……………………….24
2.6.1.6. Illuminative Evaluation Model…………………………………….25
2.6.1.7. Portraiture Model…………………………………………………..25
2.7 Evaluating Teacher Training Programs……………………………………26
2.7.1 Hamblin’s Model……………………………………………………..28
2.7.2 Brinkerhoff’s Six-Stage Evaluation Model…………………………..29
2.7.3 Kirkpatrick’s Model………………………………………………….29
2.7.4 Woodward’s Model…………………………………………………..30
2.7.4.1 The evaluation of trainees: the objectives model………………30
2.7.4.2 The evaluation of trainees: the process model…………………30
2.7.4.3 The evaluation by trainees………………………………………31
2.8 Experimental Studies on In-service Training Programs………………….31
2.9 The Summary……………………………………………………………..35
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………..37
3.2 Design of the Study…………………………………………………………37
3.3 Sample…………………………………………………………………….38
ContentsPage
3.3.1 Sampling procedure38
3.3.2 Participants39
3.4 Instrumentation 39
3.4.1 Teachers’ semi-structured Interviews………………………………..40
3.4.2 In-Service Teacher Training Programs Questionnaire………………..41
3.4.2.1 Development of the Questionnaire……………………………..41
3.5 Data Collection Procedure 41
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure 42
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction43
4.2 Findings…………………………………………………………………..43
4.2.1 Findings of the Qualitative Data Collection (teachers’ interviews)…….43
4.2.1.1 Codification of the Data…………………………………………….44
4.2.1.1.1 Open Coding……………………………………………………44
4.2.1.1.2 Axial Coding……………………………………………………47
4.2.1.1.3 Selective Coding………………………………………………..48
4.2.2. Development of the ISTTPQ……………………………………………49
4.2.2.1 Development of the Questionnaire Items …………………………50
4.2.2.2 Content and Face Validity…………………………………………50
4.2.2.3 Pilot Study…………………………………………………………51
4.2.2.4 Reliability………………………………………………………….52
4.2.2.5 Construct Validity…………………………………………………54
4.2.2.5.1 Factor Analysis…………………………………………………..54
4.2.2.6 Reassessment of Internal Consistency of the Questionnaire………60
4.2.3 Findings of the Quantitative Data Collection (Questionnaire)…………60
4.2.3.1 Demographic information of the participants……………………..60
4.2.3.2 Descriptive analysis of the data……………………………61
4.3 Teacher Development Program……………………………………67
ContentsPage
4.3.1 Needs Analysis………………………………………………………….67
4.3.2 Planning…………………………………………………………………67
4.3.3 The Content of the In-service Program………………………………..68
4.3.4 The Process of the In-service Training Program……………………….69
4.3.5 Evaluation of the In-Service Training Program……………………….69
4.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………………69
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND IMPLICATIONS
5.1 Introduction74
5.2 Summary 74
5.3 Conclusion 74
5.4 Pedagogical Implications 75
5.5 Limitations of the Study 75
5.6 Suggestions for Further Research 76
REFERENCES77
APPENDICES86
List of Tables
ContentsPage
Table 2.1 Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model………………………………….21
Table 3.1 Demographic Information of the participants39
Table 4.1 Item-total Statistics………………………………………………………..53
Table 4.2 Item-total Statistics………………………………………………………..53
Table 4.3 Reliability Analysis of the ISTTPQ……………………………………….54
Table 4.4 KMO and Bartlett’s Test………………………………………………….55
Table 4.5 Total Variance Explained for ISTTPQ……………………………………55
Table 4.6 Rotated Component Matrix of the ISTTPQ……………………………….56
Table 4.7 The Summary Table of Items Belonging to Each Factor………………….59
Table 4.8 Reliability Analysis of ISTTPQ…………………………………………..60
Table 4.9 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 1of the analysis……………………..61
Table 4.10 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 2 of the analysis……………………..63
Table 4.11 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 3 of the analysis………………………64
Table 4.12 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 4 of the analysis………………….65
Table 4.13 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 5 of the analysis65
Table 4.14 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 6 of the analysis………………….66
Table 4.15 Percentage, Mean, and Sig. in Factor 7 of the analysis………………….66
List of Figures
ContentsPage
Figure 2.1The craft model of professional education15
Figure 2.2 Applied science model15
Figure 2.3 Reflective model…………………………………………………………16
Figure 2.4The difference between Formative and Summative evaluation………….20
Figure 2.5 Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model………………………………..22
Figure 2.6 Stake’s Congruence – Contingency Model………………………………23
Figure 2.7 Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, Product Model…………………24
Figure 2.8 Expressions of levels used in training evaluation models
by different authors………………………………………………………………….28
Figure 2.9 The Six-Stage Model as a Cycle…………………………………………29
Figure 2.10 Comparison of terms used in different training
program evaluation Models…………………………………………………………31
Figure 4.1 Categories and Subcategories emerging from the Content Analysis……49

CHAPTER ONE
PRELIMINARIES
1.1 Introduction
Learning a foreign language, especially English, has increasingly become more vital the world over. This is appreciable when we consider that we live in a globalized world where English is used as a lingua franca. Over the course of time, teaching English as a foreign language has gained considerable significance so much so that it has established itself as an educational field that is worth researching within the general educational system.
Since the human life has been changed radically by the development of the technologies and the improvement of the knowledge, the need for qualified teachers can be felt even more. Therefore, teachers should improve their knowledge and skills and adjust themselves to the new technology. Thus, to keep up with these changes, teachers need to be trained continuously and become more efficient in their jobs.
For the last two decades, there have been a lot of debates on the teacher’s preparation and teacher’s development. According to Lanier and Little (1986), teacher education as a field of study has not found its right place in the academy. In teacher education field, teacher educators play highly important roles; however, most of the time, they are not taken into account in the research conducted into their work. However, this situation has changed since the 1990s as university researchers, law makers, and policy analysts have paid increasing attention to what teacher educators do. From that time, teacher education has been recognized as an object of academic research.
Yet, it is difficult for teachers to be self-sufficient due to the need for specialization of the new education-teaching programs, new teaching strategies and new technologies. As a result, according to Saban (2000), teachers can develop their qualifications and achieve professional identity through both pre- and in-service
training programs, hence, the notion of lifelong learning.
It is obvious that the quality of education is influenced by the quality of teachers and their teaching. Teachers first gain an ‘entry-level proficiency’ in teacher education institutions in pre-service training programs, and ‘mastery-level proficiency’ is obtained after a wide understanding of teaching and acquiring skills based on practical experience in in-service training programs. Each teacher needs to pass in-service education and training (commonly abbreviated as INSET) programs for the initial professional training. In-service training programs are the major elements in solving the difficulties facing teachers’ development (Craft, 2000; Day, 1999; Hammadou, 2004; Lee 2007; Sugrue, 2001).
All EFL teachers concede that the profession of teaching English entails a persistent development and innovation on their behalf. There are numerous ways in which teachers can improve themselves. One way is by participating voluntarily or otherwise in teacher training programs. As ?zen (1997, p. 2) states, in-service teacher training programs are considered as inimitable opportunities in which teachers can improve their professional and individual competence. Due to this, more and more pre-service and in-service teacher training programs are offered in teacher-training institutions.
The need for constant improvement in the profession of teaching calls for ‘teacher professional development’. In the process of the development of well-prepared teachers, well-designed pre-service and in-service training programs are very important. According to Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2001), in the past, in-service training programs had a transmission-oriented approach in which teachers were the recipients of knowledge from teacher educators; now the emphasis has shifted to the constructivist approach, where teachers concentrate on what they know, and they are no longer considered as a tabula rasa and are believed to bring their prior knowledge and personal experience into the new learning environment.
One of the advantages of in-service programs is that they provide a situation for teachers to reflect on their practices so that they will be aware of themselves as teachers and keep up with the new theories and methods in teaching and learning. The crucial contribution of in-service programs is to motivate both teachers and instructors and to make them aware of their weaknesses and strengths.
‘In-service training’ is a term used to describe a set of activities and requirements generally falling under the heading of ‘professional development’. In-service training program is a program intended to improve the performance of all personnel already holding assigned positions in a school setting or to implement a specified innovation or program (Sapp, 1996). It is a key factor in influencing the professional development of teachers and, thus, contributes to the improvement of their knowledge if teachers are actively involved in the process (Saiti & Saitis, 2006). As Locke states, in-service training is accepted as an effective method of increasing the knowledge, developing the skills, and promoting positive attitudes of teachers. Once teachers have received their certification in teaching and are employed in a professional position, the in-service training programs are used as a way to continue their education (Locke, 1984). Perron (1991) gives a definition of in-service training programs according to the Education Information Network in the European Union (EURYDICE): “a variety of activities and trainings in which teachers become involved so as to broaden their knowledge, improve their skills and assess and develop their professional approach”(Perron, 1991), 137-152.
Nevertheless, at this moment it is necessary to ponder on the fact that teacher training and teacher development are considered synonymous. However, Freeman (1982) makes a distinction between the two terms. According to him, training contends with erecting specific teaching skills, for instance, how to sequence a lesson or how to teach a grammar point. However, the focus of development is on the individual teacher-on the process of contemplation, assessment, and changes- which can result in doing a better job and in personal and professional growth. In other words, development is an umbrella term which takes account of training and other ways of improving.
As mentioned earlier, teacher training is one of the ways in which teachers can develop. As Harmer (2002) states, doing action research, reading the literature especially methodology books, journals and magazines, and exchanging ideas with colleagues are other forms of development.
However, teachers should take evaluation into consideration too. As they want to develop, they should constantly evaluate their own performance and make decisions with regard to this evaluation. Marsden (1991) discusses seven reasons for evaluating training programs: to authenticate needs assessment tools and methods; confirm or revise solution options; confirm or revise training strategies; determine trainee/trainer reactions; assess trainee acquisition of knowledge and attitudes; assess trainee performance; and determine if organizational goals are met. Hence, no matter which model is used for training teachers, it is essential that the effectiveness of the program be evaluated and assessed. Evaluation is conducted to judge the effectiveness of the programs in order to examine whether it meets its purposes, whether it meets participants’ needs, and to make required changes and adjustments for the coming year. Moreover, there is a need for the evaluation as we live in a world which always encounters changes and developments particularly in the education field and in order to sustain the latest developments and update all educational resources.
There are many different models for evaluating educational programs. According to the nature of the research carried out for evaluation, Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) divided these models into two categories. Positivistic models reflect the quantitative measures used in evaluation studies. Some characteristics of the model are:
• Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model
• Stake’s Congruence – Contingency Model
• Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, Product Model (CIPP)
• Judicial Approach to Evaluation
The second category of models which use the qualitative methods of evaluation are humanistic – naturalistic models. Some of these models are:
• Eisner’s Connoisseurship Evaluation Model
• Illuminative Evaluation Model
• Portraiture Model
In the next chapter, a more detailed account of these models is presented.
Along with these evaluation models, there are other evaluation models which are particularly recommended with the purpose of evaluating training programs, some of which have been cited below for the purpose of this study.
A) Hamblin’s Model: A model has been proposed by Hamblin (1974) which comprises five levels of evaluation carried out in a study:
1. Level 1: Reactions
2. Level 2: Learning
3. Level 3: Job Behavior
4. Level 4: Organization
5. Level 5: Ultimate value
B) Brinkerhoff’s Six-stage Model: As Brinkerhoff (1987, pp. 26-27), states, the model is circular; the final phase returns to the first phase demonstrating that the process starts again, and makes use of the results of past evaluation efforts. A more detailed account of this model is presented in the review of literature.
C) Kirkpatrick’s Model: It was first introduced by Kirkpatrick (1959). This model involves four levels of evaluation:
1. Reaction
2. Learning
3. Behavior
4. Organizational results
According to Kirkpatrick (1998), it is essential that all these four levels be focused on correspondingly, in order for the evaluation to be effective and beneficial.
D) Woodward’s Model: Another form of evaluation propounded by Woodward (1991), is the model that will be used in this study. It is a model in which a program is evaluated by trainees. She declares that trainees can articulate their opinion by “working hard, skipping sessions or dropping out.” (1991, p. 214). By completing questionnaires, feedback forms or by group discussions, trainees can express their feelings. However, she claims that taking teachers’ perceptions into consideration regarding the teacher training programs are often forgotten.
Accordingly, as teachers’ perception is the most important factor in deciding how the in-service training program could fulfill its objectives, in this study the researcher is to use this model, making use of teachers’ feedback, to evaluate the current in-service training programs.
Whatever model is used, it is always essential that training programs be evaluated. These models all offer evaluators alternative ways of assessing programs and recommend various facets of programs that can be focused on. Therefore, deciding on the most appropriate model based on the situation and purpose is the evaluator’s responsibility.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The failure of language learners in school settings could be attributed to a multitude of factors. Teachers play crucial roles in this regard. Learners are different, and teachers have a pivotal role in making the academic life of language learners different. Therefore, teachers could be very influential in this respect. Educational authorities spend a lot of money and time on in-service programs. Among other things, one objective of such programs is to address the problems which arise in the process of teaching language. In order to train qualified teachers who are in high demand in academic environments, it is crucial to scrutinize in-service programs to see if these programs equip language teachers with the necessary knowledge needed in language classes. Furthermore, it should be determined whether these programs are in line with teachers and learners’ needs. Pre-service training programs have been extensively researched. However, very few studies have been carried out into in-service programs. Teacher training programs in Iran are usually predetermined packages of 4 to 5 hours of instruction which are mostly theoretical in nature. In effect, the current teacher training programs in Iran suffer from various shortcomings which make them potentially inadequate when it comes to equipping teachers with sufficient knowledge and expertise that is necessary for their career.
Accordingly, the present study was intended to scrutinize in-service teacher training programs to find out teachers’ perceptions of these programs. In addition, an attempt was made to develop a framework which could be applied to the evaluation of in-service teacher-training programs. Needless to say, the insights gained into these programs could be used to develop programs which could help alleviate, if not totally remove, the possible problems of in-service teacher training programs.
1.3 Significance of the study
In EFL situations, teachers and textbooks are important variables in teaching and learning a language. Therefore, authorities should pay particular attention to teacher preparation programs. The findings of the current study will be both theoretically and practically significant to teacher educators, language teachers, and language learners. In-service training programs are intended to realize a number of objectives. As one of the objectives, these programs are to enable language teachers to keep abreast of the latest advancements made in technology regards to language teaching. In addition, these programs are expected to address the problems which arise during practical language teaching. If teacher development programs are implemented with high efficiency, this could result in supplying our educational system with reflective, creative, and competent teachers who will have an enormous effect on language learners’ achievement.
In addition, educational authorities spend a considerable amount of time and money to offer in-service training programs to teachers of English. It is highly necessary to evaluate these programs to see whether they achieve the desired results. The findings of the present study could help teacher educators to gain insights into the ways in which teacher training practices, and by the same token, teaching practices in language classes could be improved. Based on the results of the study, teacher educators could provide teachers with an in-service training program that is relevant to the reality of teaching classes and needs of language teachers.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of the study, the following research questions are formulated:
1. What are the perceptions of English teachers of current in-service training programs?
2. What is the framework to be applied to evaluate the current in-service English teacher-training programs?
3. What is the optimum model of English teachers’ in-service training programs?
This study will be an attempt to explore English teachers’ perceptions of in-service training programs, to see whether they are actually meeting the needs of the teachers and administrators. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an appropriate model of teacher training and teacher development which is built upon the findings of the study and is intended to fulfill the requirements of the pictures of the field. This model, it is hoped, will not suffer from the current inadequacies and the expectation is that it can be implemented in an EFL context.
1.5 Definition of key terms
Training: According to Hamblin (1974), training is defined as “any activity which intentionally attempts to improve a person’s skill in a job [and] includes any type of experience designed to facilitate learning which will assist performance in a present or future job” (p. 3).
Bramley (1991) expresses his views about what the requirements of an in-service
training programs are:
Training should be a systematic process with some planning and control rather
than random learning from experience; it should be concerned with changing
concepts, skills and attitudes of people treated both as individuals and as
groups and it is intended to improve performance in both the present and the
following job and through this should enhance the effectiveness of the part of
the organization in which the individual or group works. (p. xiv-xv)

However, at this point, it is necessary to make some association between teacher training and teacher education. Nowadays most researchers prefer to use the term “teacher education” since they believe this term more precisely describes the continuing growth of knowledge and understanding inherent in professional development. Ur (1996) distinguishes between these two by declaring that teacher training refers to “unthinking habit formation and an over-emphasis on skills and techniques” whereas teacher education is concerned with developing theories, awareness of choices and decision making abilities. Ur also mentions other descriptions of education and training by specifically stating that education is a process of learning which focuses on the whole person facets such as moral, cultural, social and intellectual aspects and training which prepares trainees for a particular function or profession. (Peters, as cited in Ur, 1996).
Evaluation: In terms of education, it can be indicated that evaluation aims at identifying strengths and weaknesses of specific activities in a program.
Payne (1994) outlines the importance of educational evaluation. The first role he considers is the fact that evaluation helps to enhance the program during the development. Facilitating “rational comparison of competing programs” which leads to effective decision making is the second role. He eventually states that contributing to the knowledge of effective program designing is the role of educational evaluation.
In-service teacher training: Perron (1991) defines it as teachers’ involvement in a variety of activities and practices in order to expand their knowledge, improve their skills and evaluate and develop their professional approach. Guskey sees in-service education programs as consisting of changes. He declares that in-service education programs “are a systematic attempt to bring about changes- change in the classroom practices of teachers, change in their beliefs and attitudes and change in the learning outcomes of students” (Guskey, 1986). As can be seen, teacher training is an act of assisting teachers to be professionally developed. Candy (2002), defines in-service training programs as lifelong learning and he describes it as:
A continuously supportive process which stimulates and empowers
individuals to acquire all the knowledge, values, skills and understanding
they will acquire throughout their lifetimes and to apply them with
confidence, creativity and enjoyment in all roles, circumstances and
environments. (p. 6)

1.6 Organization of the Thesis
The overall structure of the present thesis takes the form of five chapters, including this introductory chapter.
Chapter Two provides a review of the relevant literature; it will explore the main issues of the study. i.e. different models of teacher education, evaluation of teacher training programs, and the relate concepts. To this end, this chapter is divided into different parts. In the beginning, the theoretical issues and descriptive studies are reviewed and later the practical issues and empirical research which has been carried out by different scholars are presented.
Chapter 3 presents the methodology of the study including the research design and the research method. A full description of the data collection instruments and their validity is presented. Furthermore, an account is given of the population, and the sampling procedure, followed by a discussion of the way in which the data will be analyzed.
Chapter 4 presents the results of the study and detailed analysis of the data collected. This chapter will also discuss the findings of the study, relating the findings to those of other studies.
Chapter 5 summarizes the findings, discusses the implications of the study, and presents limitations and recommendations for future research.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
No matter what language teaching method one adheres to, or even in post-method pedagogy, language teachers have an irreplaceable role to play. In order to equip language teachers with the professional knowledge which they require for teaching undertaking, pre-service and in-service training programs have been in place for quite some time. Extensive research has been carried out into the effectiveness of such programs. In addition, a number of models have been worked out which are quite useful for both planning and evaluating these programs. In this chapter, an attempt is made to give an overview of the related literature concerning the main issues of the study. i.e. different models of teacher education, evaluation of teacher training programs, and the related concepts.
To this end, this chapter is divided into different sections. In the beginning, the theoretical issues and descriptive studies are reviewed and later the practical issues and empirical research findings are discussed.
2.2 Teaching and Learning English
According to Ur (1996), learning is an experience that involves almost each individual. It can happen even “without conscious teaching” (p. 4). To Ur, learning can occur even without any teaching taking place. It can happen without the learner’s awareness anywhere, anytime, and in any condition. In contrast, teaching “is intended to result in personal learning for students, and is worthless if it does not do so” (Ur, 1996, p. 4). Due to the crucial importance of teaching in this regard, stakeholders, such as teachers and textbook writers in education have perpetually strived for more effective ways of teaching. A profusion of research and diligences has been carried out to improve the effectiveness of teaching English in the area of English language teaching.
According to those involved in the profession of teaching such as teachers, curriculum writers, methodologists and students, English language teaching has undergone many changes and has taken on many different forms ever since the time it came into being. Many different approaches, techniques and methods have been utilized in teaching the English language such as Audio-lingualism, Community Language Learning, The Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Total Physical Response and the Communicative Approach. All approaches and methods enjoy some advantages and demerits; nonetheless, they all have one aim in common, which is to teach the English in the most suitable and effective way. All these changes in English language teaching are due to the possible setbacks of each of the methods aforementioned. According to Harmer (2002), we are continuously confronted with new technology, and the questioning of convictions about teaching. Hence, creating change in our profession is a persistent need.
2.3 The Need for Teacher Training
Teacher training has received quite a lot of attention, especially when it comes to teaching a foreign language, since teaching a foreign language is an arduous task. Bramley asserts that effectiveness cannot be ignored when we talk about teacher training. He also argues that the evaluation and the concept of training cannot be separated (1991, p. xv).
However, at this point, it is necessary to make the association between teacher training and teacher education. Nowadays, most researchers prefer to use the term “teacher education” since they believe this more precisely describes the continuing growth of knowledge and understanding inherent in professional development. Ur (1996) distinguishes between these two by declaring that teacher training refers to “unthinking habit formation and an over-emphasis on skills and techniques” whereas teacher education is concerned with developing theories, awareness of choices and decision making abilities (p. 3). Ur also mentions other descriptions of education and training, stating that education is a process of learning which focuses on the whole person facets such as moral, cultural, social and intellectual aspects and that training prepares trainees for a particular function or profession (Peters, 1966, as cited in Ur, 1996).
In the light of all the above, it is necessary to define the term ‘teacher development’. In considering any occupation and any situation, developing and growing should be taken into account. According to Freeman (1982), the main focus of development is on the individual teacher, on the process of reflection, scrutiny, and change which can lead to doing a better job and to personal and professional growth. Thus, development assumes that teaching is a perpetually evolving process of growth and change. It is a development of skills and understanding, one in which the responsibility for the process is on the teacher’s shoulder in much the same way students are for learning a language. That is to say, according to Eren, Ozen, and Karabacak (2009) teachers, who are working in a learning organization, are, indeed, learners themselves. In a similar vein, Day (1999) states that teachers’ professional development includes:
All natural learning experiences and these conscious planned activities which
are intended to be of direct or indirect benefit to the individual, group or school
and which contribute through those, to the quality of education in the classroom,
and is the process by which, alone and with others, teachers review, renew and
extend their commitment as change agents. (p.4)

As Harmer quotes from Fanselow (1987), teachers’ development can occur by breaking the rules and challenging what they have been taking for granted (Underhill, 1992 as cited by Harmer, 2002, p. 344). As Harmer (2002) states, doing action research, reading the literature containing methodology books, journals and magazines, exchanging ideas with colleagues, making use of the Internet, and also improving by learning are other forms of development (Harmer, 2002, pp. 344-351). Therefore, in discussing teachers’ development, broader and long-term considerations should be taken into account: how a teacher can be encouraged to grow, to explore new avenues and ideas, and, by this, to avoid professional atrophy or the feeling that one has done it all before. Based on the above-mentioned statements, the development of teachers can be accomplished in many ways. It is believed that teacher training programs hold a significant key to



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